What were the main gods of the Mayans

What were the main gods of the Mayans?

Mayan mythology is one of the most mysterious, both because of its origin and because of the meaning of its rituals, based on offering various sacrifices to their deities. The origin of the Mayans dates back to 2,500 BC in the Sierras Cuchumatanes, located in Guatemala. There they evolved until they managed to structure society and expand until they reached Mexico.

In addition, they based their development on a polytheistic belief in which figures of different gods were erected. Through them, the Mayans could explain the creation of the cosmos, life, death and what goes beyond creation, destruction or meteorological phenomena and natural balance. We want you to learn a little more about the Mayan culture and discover what the main Mayan gods are.

Hunab Ku: Father of the Gods

What is the most important Mayan god? The most relevant deity for the Mayans is Hunab Ku (also known as Hunab), who is considered the father of all gods.

Through his own name, whose meaning is “one god,” the Mayans gave this deity the first place in the world of gods, the highest importance and relevance. This is the only god that has life for them and through him come not only the rest of the deities but also the construction of everything around them. Therefore, it represents everything and nothing.

Hunab Ku is the Mayan creator god of the world, the one who designed the heavens and who is represented by the Sun. The Mayans considered him the center of the universe. According to Mayan mythology, it is believed that Hunab Ku created the world three times. The first time the god created the world, he inhabited it with wise men, the second time, he included the Dzolob, a malevolent and dark race, and finally, he created the world and life, the place where the Mayans would be born.

Itzamná: God of the Sky

Itzanmá, also known as Itzam Na or Zamná, is one of the most multifaceted deities of the Mayan culture. He is the ruler of heaven, the true master of day and night. Although Hunab Ku was considered the father of all gods, for the Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula, Zamná was the true creator of everything, which is why he has always been considered one of the main gods of their mythology.

This deity can be seen represented as a winged dragon with two heads, which pours water on the earth from the sky. However, she can also be seen as a bird-like figure with serpentine features or, even in his humanoid form, as an old man with large eyes and nose, sunken cheekbones, a beard, and no teeth.

But that’s not all. He is also considered the god of wisdom for the following powers and creations attributed to him:

The protection of science in all its branches, especially astrology, one of the areas, along with writing, in which the Mayans stood out.
The invention of writing and the Mayan calendar.
The creation and care of medicine and agriculture, since, in addition, Zamná symbolizes water and energy.
The balance between life and death.
The creation of chaos so that new and important creations could exist.

Chaac: God of lightning and rain

Chaac, also written as Chac, is the main deity for the Mayans. It is one of the most popular gods in this culture, as it was one of the most praised in the Mayan pantheon. Through the rain, it provides abundance and prosperity, as well as fertility.

The Mayans believed that when it rained, the deity came down to Earth to visit the Mayans and provide them with bountiful harvests. For this reason, in dry areas such as Yucatan, it is where this god was most venerated. Likewise, many Mayans related to Chaac as a reference and symbol of the four cardinal points.

Their representation has always been diverse. Sometimes with feminine features, others with masculine features, but always with one point in common: a reptilian aspect.

Ixchel: Goddess of love

As in any self-respecting polytheistic belief, the Mayan goddess of love cannot be missing. That is Ixchel for the Mayans, wife of Itzamná, god of wisdom. If her husband is represented through the sky and the sun, she is the goddess of the Mayan moon, of fertility, of pregnancies and births, but she is also associated with vegetation, manual work and medicine.

It is the most important female deity for the Mayans and therefore is among the main gods of this culture. While Itzamná was seen during the hours of sun, Ixchel was only seen at night, when the moon rose.

But in addition to love, Ixchel is also related to water in its most destructive form, such as floods and other natural disasters caused or related to this element.

The representation of the goddess of the moon was made through an old woman with symbols related to death (crossed bones on her skirt, twisted snake on her head…) and with water as a pitcher that is poured onto the earth.

Kauil: God of fire

Kauil, the god of fire, is described by the Mayans as the father and mother of humans. For their culture, fire is a basic element with a transcendental role. This civilization believed that he who was able to dominate fire was able to control his inner violence.

There are numerous rituals dedicated to this god that is still carried out today through campfires and bonfires, since the belief says that, after interacting with them, one comes out renewed: the bad is burned and positive energy is generated to receive all the good.

The Mayan god of fire is represented as an ambiguous figure with a long nose and a serpent’s mouth.

Yum Kaax: God of corn

Yum Kaax, also known by names like Itzam Na Kuil, Kauil, Ah Nun or Ah Mun, is the Mayan god of corn. His main name means “lord of the woods,” and he is considered the main deity of agriculture. He is a benevolent god and the Mayans were forbidden to refer to death in front of him.

It is the most vital and fundamental god for the Mayans, who based their diet on the ear of corn. This god is represented as a strong young man, handsome and always with an ear of corn on his head, as well as a vessel in his hands with three ears of corn in it.

Ek Chuah: God of Cocoa

In this list of the most important Mayan gods, Ek Chuah, the Mayan god of cocoa, could not be missing. This deity is very relevant and popular among street vendors since they worshiped him day after day so that their sales would be optimal and successful.

In addition, Ek Chuah is a Mayan deity that has two basic abilities:

Promote and favor the planting and development of cocoa on the land.
Promote conflicts, as he is considered the patron of war.
Buluc Chabtan: god of war
Buluc Chabtan is not only the Mayan god of war but is also associated with destruction, human sacrifice, and sudden and violent death.

It is a deity also known under the name of Achuykaak and closely related to the god of death Yum Cimil. To represent him, the Mayans used a line of black dots over their eyes and cheeks, like a mask.

Kinich-Ahau: God of the Sun

Kinich-Ahau is one of the Mayan deities that generates the most debate since it is believed that he is the fruit of two different gods, but it has never been clear which deity he actually comes from, so each region that worships him may differ in its origin.

For some, the considered Mayan god of the sun comes from Itzamná. For others, it comes from Kinich Kakmó. Be that as it may, and far from the dilemma of its origin, Kinich-Ahau (also written as Kinich Ajaw or Ahau Kin), in addition to being the Mayan god of the sun, is related to life, prosperity and fertility of the earth as well as with music.

Kinich-Ahau is usually depicted as an old man with square, somewhat cross-eyed eyes, worn incisor teeth, and also holding a four-petaled flower.

Yum Kimil: god of death

What is the name of the god of the Mayan underworld? Yum Kimil, also known as Yum Cimil or Kizin, is the Mayan god of death. It is the sovereign of the underworld and hell, because he resides there. For the Mayans, it is a malevolent deity, although its mission is to give shelter to the dead, except those chosen by the goddess Xtabai, his wife.

According to Mayan mythology, the god of death prowled in the homes of the sick to hunt down his new victims and be able to take them with him to hell. So in order to scare it away, the Mayans believed that the best option was to scream as loud as possible to scare it away and free the sick from death.

For the Yucatecans, Kizin is a stark deity, the patron of death, which is why he is usually represented with a skull as his head and his ribs are exposed. Likewise, it has served as inspiration for current illustrations that represent death since it is related to the skeleton.

5 Common Mistakes That College Students Make

5 Common Mistakes That College Students Make

College comes with many opportunities to learn and to prepare for one’s career. It also provides opportunities to make serious mistakes. Generations of students have made the same mistakes over and over. There are too many to list in one article, but here are five of them that can affect your grades and limit how much you can get out of the college experience.

Expecting Someone to Provide Reminders

In college, nobody is going to remind you to do your homework or study for a test. It’s up to you to track your progress in a course. If you are familiar with the syllabus and complete the work assigned, you should be on track. All due dates are listed ahead of time. With just a little responsibility, you can stay focused on getting everything in on time.

Don’t Proofread Papers

Writing a paper doesn’t just involve research and writing. College professors, even those at Fresno State University, spend more time than necessary correcting punctuation, grammar, and run-on sentences. College students are expected to write well. Many do, but there are others who don’t or don’t put time and effort into reviewing the materials they submit.

Spending too Much Time Online

The Internet is a universe of information, but college offers a chance to learn and socialize. You don’t press click here to learn everything in life. Spending too many hours on the Web and social media takes away from studying and having face-to-face discussions with peers. Block time each day when you are not online, and you can see the kind of college experience you can really have.

Procrastination

College is not about waiting until the last minute and studying all night before a test. If you do it right, it doesn’t have to be that way. Procrastination is one of the biggest common mistakes in college. It can be avoided with time management and planning. Keep a schedule and start on papers well in advance of their due date, or study a little each day without cramming it all in the night before a test.

Cutting Classes

Students love to make the most of their freedom, but too much of a good thing can hurt them. There’s lots of room for personal freedom. Cutting classes doesn’t make any more room, and certainly doesn’t help your chances of success. Remember that each lecture is part of your tuition and a significant part of the course content. How free do you feel if you don’t get the most out of your college experience?

Many people make mistakes in college. Anyone can learn from their mistakes. By being focused and careful, you can avoid making mistakes that can limit your ability to succeed in college.

First Choice College

5 Steps You Can Take to Ensure That You Get Into Your First Choice College

If you’re like most college applicants, you have a dream school, and it would break your heart not to be admitted. While it wouldn’t be the end of the world, there’s no reason you can’t make certain moves to ensure that you get in. Here are five steps you can take to make your application process one that ends in a joyful result.

First Choice College

1. Apply Early

If you know you’ve wanted to go to a certain school your whole life, why would you wait to apply? Grab the application as soon as your junior year transcript is available and get to work. Early Decision or Early Action are two of the clearest indicators that an applicant favors an institution above all others. Aside from admitting students that have the appropriate grades and extracurriculars, universities want to cultivate a student body that’s passionate about attending.

2. Study in High School

Find out what the minimum G.P.A. and test scores are for your school of choice and blow those out of the water. The earlier you know this information the better, but hopefully, you’ve been putting effort into your studies since you started your freshman year. We wish there were a workaround, but school revolves around studying, and institutions can’t afford to give a spot to a student that shows clear indicators they will not be able to keep up with the academic pace. So if your grades need improving, do whatever you can to exceed expectations.

3. Interview

If you want to all but guarantee admission to your top choice school, you need to show them in every way possible that they’re just that, your top choice. This means taking advantage of every opportunity they give you beyond your application to score face time. Go visit, meet with alumni and get an interview. Sitting down one-on-one is an amazing way to stick in the brains of the school’s admissions counselors. If you already know grades, extracurriculars, and test scores won’t be an issue, an interview is only going to help you.

4. Be Specific

No first choice school is going to be very impressed that you want to attend because it has a good reputation, football team or housing program. Actually, if you want to go to that school for those things, you should probably reconsider. Choosing a school for superficial reasons is a great way to find yourself transferring in a few semesters. Do your research and figure out what about the school you’re excited to take part in. Do they have a specific program that appeals to you? Maybe there’s a professor that you’ve dreamed of studying with for ages. Whatever the reason, communicate why this place in particular appeals to you.

5. Go the Extra Mile

At every level, getting into college is especially competitive these days. Parents are not above hiring tutors to boost their children’s grade point averages, nor are students above stacking their applications with extracurriculars and service work to look more well-rounded than they actually are. If you think you’re going to get into Princeton University with only a 4.0 G.P.A. at your disposal, click here, we have a warm, sunny island in Alaska to sell you. If your top choice university is competitive, you will need to do far more than just apply with good grades. Think about what you have to offer aside from your academics, and promote those heavily to your favorite school. Whenever you think you’ve done enough, think about one other thing you can do to make yourself attractive to them. If this is your first choice college, nothing is too much!

 

Pittston Graduation

5 Reasons You Why You Shouldn’t Drop Out of College

If you’ve entered college and don’t feel like it’s going well for you, you might be considering dropping out. It’s certainly tempting given the amount of money school costs these days. It’s also tempting to return home to familiar ground if you chose a school far away. In the long run, however, dropping out will not serve you. Here are five reasons why.

1. You’ve Already Spent the Money

If you’ve spent any more than a semester in school, you should stay. You’ll have already forked over a lot of money, but you haven’t gotten anything tangible for it. Yes, you may have made friends and learned a few things, but you came to the school for a degree, and that’s what’s going to get you a job in the long run. The money is already spent, at this point. You can’t get it back, so you might as well get what you paid for.

2. You Haven’t Done Your Due Diligence

If you’re feeling discouraged and depressed, those may be signals that you’re not at the right school or in the right major, but you shouldn’t just drop out because you’re unhappy. Your first stop should be to the student relations office or your academic advisor. More likely than not, you’re going through something a bunch of other students before you have also gone through. It’s worth it to seek some help or advice before taking a drastic step that you can’t undo.

3. Your Career Prospects Will Be Limited

Studies show that your earning potential will be drastically affected if you do not graduate college. Unless you’re some kind of savant in your field and can prove that to potential employers, you will not be able to nab the same jobs or paychecks as those with a degree. If you only ever plan on working for yourself, there’s still a lot you can learn via higher education that will help you start your own business.

4. It’s Not Just About School

While the degree is certainly important, college is much more than academics. For most, it’s the first time they will live away from home or explore a region other than the one they grew up in. It’s important for you to live outside your own bubble at least once in your life so you can understand that there are other options out there. Don’t drop out before you’ve seen beyond your front lawn.

5. You Won’t Save Money

In the short run, you’ll save on tuition. That’s not something we’re going to argue with. However, what you lose in earning potential will cost you far more in the long run. Plus, there’s no reason to simply drop out just because of expense. Not when there are so many options for alternative education available.

How to Stretch Your Finances in College

How to Stretch Your Finances in College

Being a college student at UCLA requires great discipline – to get to class on time, study hard and save money. The last thing you need to worry about during your studies at NEC Online is about paying for expenses. This is why it’s so important to establish a budget in college. Not only will it make college life simpler, but it will also help set the foundation for your financial future. If you can learn how to save and budget in college, then it will be easy to do once you’re out in the real world. But how on earth can you do this when you have such a tight student budget?

Here are a few ideas to stretch your finances in college.

Opt for Used Textbooks

Student spend thousands on textbooks throughout their college career. You can minimize this expense by ditching the college bookstore and going to a shop that sells used textbooks. You can sometimes find these locally, but if not, you can always head online. Then once you’re done with them, you can sell them back, which increases your savings even more.

Become a Thrifty Shopper

Who said like-new isn’t as good as new? If you can find clothes, shoes and accessories that are in good condition, why not buy them at a marked-down price? You can still look good in college without spending tons of money clothes. You should shop at thrift stores and consignment shops instead of department stores. You can sometimes find name brand items at cheap prices. And if you don’t have these options, you can also shop for non-name brand items.

Graduate as Quickly as Possible

Tuition, housing, food and other fees can quickly add up in college. It’s best to try and graduate within the four-year time frame, so you don’t have to continue dishing out money for these expenses. If possible, you can try graduating in three years. You can talk to your student advisor to see how this can be possible. This should be discussed during freshman year, so you can take the proper steps to graduate earlier.

Share an Apartment

If you’re not going to be living on campus, you should opt to roommate with buddies or other college students. This will help make rent and utilities more affordable. If you eat similar foods, you all can pitch in for groceries as well.

Stick to Your Budget

You need to organize your monthly spending habits, so you know exactly how much you have leftover each month. If nothing, then you need to re-prioritize your expenses. The budget you create should enable you to get everything you need, and hopefully you will have something to put away into a piggy bank each month.

Get Rid of Cable

Most millennials today have already ditched the concept of buying cable television. However, if you still have it, consider letting it go for cheaper options like Netflix or Amazon Video. You can save hundreds of dollars each year, if not thousands.